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The bloowing art of twinng flowers (Искусство сдвоенных цветов

The bloowing art of twinng flowers (Искусство сдвоенных цветов)

Абстракт: Yingshan сдвоенные цветы является видом ручного мастерства, популярного в Китае. Они часто используются в традиционных мероприятиях, основанных на традициях, подобно свадьбам и похоронам, чтобы выразить человеческие чувства и пожелания друг для друга в виде "объемных вышивок", “cameo in thread art, “vivid Gongbi painting”. В статье исследуются характеристики сдвоенных цветов.

Ключевые слова: Yingshan сдвоенные ; благоприятный; небольшой и умный; изысканный и уточненный; координация.

With outstanding people and splendid nature, Yingshan County is located in the south of lofty Dabie Mountain in China. Farmers there feed silkworms for cocoon filaments. Hence, the plentiful resources of silk yarn assure the materials of Twining Flowers. The farmers would engage in some needlework, in which Yingshan Twining Flower— a folk decoration art in Yingshan County, are rich in local feature. As early as the song dynasty had written about wind flowers, after the Ming and qing dynasty, prevalent in the Republic of China. The first step for Twining Flower is to build blank holder with objects like copper coins, pens, nut lets, eggshells and so on, or paperboard and slender copper wire twisting in different forms. Then the blank holder is twined on with silk or cotton threads in different colors according to figures. Honored as “three-dimensional embroidery”, “cameo in thread art” and “vivid Gongbi painting”, Yingshan Twining Flower is not only a combination of paper-cutting, embroidery, sculpture and weaving, but a unique art as well.:

1. Subtle and propitious conception

As a folk custom of decoration, Twining Flower is frequently used in festivals or in folk- custom activities like marriages and funerals to express people's yearn for good things and wishes to each other. With subtle conception and propitious theme, the images are mainly from plants, flowers, animals and birds, insects and fish, and Chinese characters(e.g. Fig.1). For example, the set of “plum blossoms”, ’’orchid”, ’’bamboo” and “chrysanthemum” symbolize the four seasons; magpie and plum blossoms mean happiness; bat and peaches represent longevity. Different combinations of animal and plants design various kinds of works to express wishes: bless for the live, congratulate to the married, celebrate for the elders and grieve over the departed saint.

2. Cute and vivid shape

The size of the work, be it a butterfly, peony, swallow, dragonfly, lotus or bee, is no more than one square cun(one cun equals 3.3cm). Both the color and the shape are designed on the natural appearance of material objects. For instance, as it is shown in figure 1, the peony is featured with the bright color, classic and elegant shape, multilayer petals, gradient color and upstanding twig; the butterfly, with spreading wings, has colorful and beautiful piebald embellishing in wings and body. Its wings stand in its back at rest while dance trippingly when flying. Also, it has a long and thin abdomen, with vibrate or capitate tentacle on the head (e.g. Fig.2). From the relation between reality and art, the lifelike shapes of Twining Flowers represent the exchange from macro world to micro mentality as well as the harmony between intertwine and balance.

3. Flexible composition

The Twining Flower has a great appliance in the folk-custom activities such as births, marriages, birthdays, congratulations for entrance exams and so on, and it is embodied on dress, shoes, hats, bed items, daily necessities, packing boxes and the like. For example, the baby on one-year old birthday would wear a handcrafted hat with the figure of a tiger to celebrate his birthday(e.g. Fig.3). When getting engaged, the male will present the female an exquisite gift box, in which the handcrafted gift were designed into a festive and beautiful picture with ten copper coins and flowers. When passing the entrance examination, the children would

be bestowed brushes with a lucky pattern on. The composition of the Twining Flower varies from their blank holders. Therefore, the handcrafted works are in varied forms.

4. Style in uniform

Countless silks are twined into a separate or combined Twining Flowers. Harmony and coordination is the principle for any Twining Flower. The following are the exact examples for the principle, which can be specifically illustrated as uniform in colors, in figures, in silks, and in strengths on hands. To be exact, the uniform in colors refers to the coordination between the color and the keynote of the Twining Flower; the uniform in figures means all the figures handcrafted are in proportionally designed, although they would be somewhat exaggerated; the uniform in silks means silks, as the main materials of Twining Flower, must be bright in colors, concordant in sizes and suitable in hardness; the uniform in strength on hands means that the strength from hands(e.g. Fig.4), which would affect the beauty and stability of the Twining Flower, must be well-distributed during twining.

The Twining Flower with neat, exquisite and vivid figures are from countryside, rooted in Chinese folk art and handcrafted by farmers. It is a blooming flower with rich fragrance, and deserves to be carried on and extended by dress designers or decoration designers in order that its value of aesthetics culture, history and economy can be widely spread.


1. Fengjun. The Small Exquisite Twisted and Lifelike Twining Flower, The Origin of Hubei Folk Art, Hubei Arts Publishing House, 1987.

2. Cheng Ping, Li Yaping. Discussion on the Transition and Development of “Yingshan Twining Flower” in Dabie Mountain[J], Literature and Arts, 2004 (211).

УДК 687.016

Research about the Chinese traditional fish patterns and use in modern design (Использование традиционного китайского орнамента в виде рыб в современном дизайне)


(Wuhan Textile University, Китай)

Абстракт: Вместе с развитием общества и улучшением жизненных условий и стандартов, постоянным развитием искусства костюма, способов и технологий дизайна, заметно отличающихся от традиционных, особенно фольклорных, как важнейшего элемента эволюции одежды, происходит модернизация моды. Орнамент в виде рыб добавляет особый колорит художественному дизайну. Изучены оригинальные и современные виды орнаментов, их характеристики, особенности использования. Показаны комбинации традиционного и современного дизайна, их проникновение, направления использования в современном искусстве, особенности стилистики и развития моды.

Ключевые слова: орнамент в виде рыб; рисунки, современный дизайн Fish pattern is the one of traditional Chinese patterns. It has profound implications and cultural connotations in the art of traditional Chinese patterns. The earliest discovered fish pattern is on the painted pottery which was unearthed in the site of Xi'an Banpo Yang shao Culture. There are many forms such as single fish, double fishes, Siamese fishes, variant fish, Mermaid, fish animal, fish object, etc. Fish pattern often decorated on jade, bronzes, painted pottery, porcelain, also seen commonly on copper basin and bronze mirror.

Because of the restriction of different natural factors and social factors in each period, the fish patterns are differ in the expression of various periods, and also give the fish pattern development in each period of the traces of history. The fish patterns through a from the realistic form to geometric from to the symbolic form of evolution, from the side reflects the process of the ancient understanding for the fish, and their understanding and imagination for the fish, and create the new fish patterns, from fish patterns to diamond, from flowers to the different arc changes other forms of different from the concrete to the abstract fish pattern deformation, have social meaning of this variant abstract, is an important part of Chinese traditional pattern. It can be divided into realistic fish patterns, yin yang fish patterns modeling, geometric fish patterns, symbol of the fish patterns.

The earliest appeared fish pattern is realistic style, originated six thousand years ago Banpo Yang shao culture painted pottery in Xi'an. Realistic fish patterns associated with the time of totem worship and economic life, the fish pattern decoration is their life. In addition to reflect the lives of hunting and fishing to fish as the main source of survival, more is to envy fish vitality and strong reproductive ability, wants to transfer the fish strong reproductive capacity to humans, or can enhance human reproduction ability. But the realistic fish patterns of ancient and modern existence certain disparity in the form and concept. The depicted on pottery realistic fish patterns for the side image, but the fish fin is unusually carried out under the symmetry of the two groups of four, this is looking down from above, but the ancients two observation different viewpoints together as one to show.As shown in picture 9.

The concept of yin and yang is derived from new era, from ancient China people's view of nature; it is used as the transfer of the four seasons in the nature of alternating with angel of the image and the existence of the alternation of yin and yang. In the fish patterns,“yin yang fish” shape, yin and yang, the two fishes and endless chase, is the ancient human beings for the manifestation of the pursuit of life, not chaos and war. Its connotation can be understood as the harmony and unification, and human to pray for happiness is the same, so the yin yang fish pattern has also become a symbol of the pursuit of a better life.As shown in picture 10.

With the evolution of history, the medieval period appeared to geometry to the perfor-mance of the fish shape in pottery. The ancient people for the understanding of the natural form deepening continuously, and then on the basis of the natural form of fish for deformation and simplified, thus obtained the fish pattern of simple geometry, although this pattern has changed the fish itself natural form, but in certain parts still reserves. For example, the Miao digou painted pottery basin fish patterns with curve geometric modeling and small circle to express the fish, Geometric fish grain line is fluent, showing a geometric fish dynamic beauty.As shown in picture 11.

The symbol of the fish patterns derived from late antiquity, is a turbulent period Chinese traditional fish pattern of culture, because of the influence of national integration and external factors more or less will make the traditional fish pattern has a certain impact. This time the fish patterns separate themselves from the fish's natural form, with a fish and related things to express. Through the associated with fish expression of things, make people through the association to produce image of the fish, thereby creating a new form of expression of the fish pattern. A variety of symbolic fish pattern forms have appeared in the Yang shao painted pottery culture, but most still retain fish natural form, until the Miao Digou painted pottery and painted pottery in Majiayao types began to appear compared with other symbolic fish, one of the most simple is checker.As shown in picture 12.

Dressed in modern society there is no shortage of the use of fish pattern. cotton shirts, jeans, sportswear, leather bags, the combination of the fish pattern designs of primitive simplicity and modern materials, it is the product with both delicate and of primitive simplicity, tradition and fashion style.As shown in picture 13.14.

Picture 9 Realistic fish patterns

УДК 687.02

GUO LI (WuHan Textile University, Китай)