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The factors which influence the choice of the place of living


THE FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE THE CHOICE OF THE PLACE OF LIVING

Noskov A.S.

Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N.Yeltsin,

Ekaterinburg,

referetsf[AT]yandex.ru

Belyakov V.A.

Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N.Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg,

9222283482[AT]mail.ru

Ushakov D.E.

Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N.Yeltsin, Ekaterinburg, Satisfaction with the external environment is a key factor for the person to make choice of the place of living. In the last few decades in our country there is the population outflow from the "small" cities and its accumulation in the "the largest" cities. In a conventional vocabulary "largest" cities (with the population greater than 1 million) are referred to as big cities. From the point of urban development, "big" are settlements with a population of 100 to 250 thousand people, and the cities of one million people are called "the largest" [1].

The problem is that due to the outflow of labor resources from big cities the development of their territory slows down, because the people who went to the largest cities are engaged in maintenance and development of the last mentioned in the future [5].

In “the largest" cities, this process causes problems of overpopulation, and in small, medium and big cities it causes the shortage of skilled workers, both in the field of intellectual and physical labor [3].

In this article we study the influence of the external environment on the urban residents of the cities on example of two settlements: Ekaterinburg - a representative of "the largest" city and Berezniki, which is related to the group of "big" cities considering its urban development. Problems of "small" and "medium-sized" cities basically are similar to the problem of "big" city, but they are more acute and serious to them.

Let us consider the parameters of the external environment, which may be possible reasons for the population departure from the "big" cities:

Telecommunications.

Internet development takes place in parallel in the "big" and "the largest" cities. The authors have no significant reason to believe that this parameter has an impact on the choice of residence.

Greater number of vacancies.

"Big City is a place of great opportunities." Here, as a rule, this metaphor is valid. The key word is an "opportunity." In absolute terms, the number of vacancies and jobs in "the largest" city, of course, is greater. But in this case we should consider the number of available positions per one inhabitant. This question seems specific according to certain parameters [1]. In Russia, there are cities that specialize in a particular activity, the so-called monotowns. The existence of such singleindustry cities is typical not only for Russia. In such towns the choice of profession is quite limited. In turn "the largest" city offers a greater range of popular production and business occupations, but the number of jobs per capita does not exceed this amount in the “big” city.

In quantitative terms, the number of vacancies in Ekaterinburg is greater, but the number of vacancies is approximately the same per capita. If in Berezniki this figure was the same than in Ekaterinburg, the number of jobs would have been greater by 310 positions.

Conclusion

The number of vacancies per capita is approximately the same in “the largest” city and in the "big" city. The important factor is migration of the working age population for seasonal earnings.

The level of provided cultural facilities and social amenities.

Stores. In the "big" cities fashion brands of clothing or expensive items cannot be easily found. The reason is the high cost of these brands, the low wages level of the bulk of the population and, as a result, small demand for this type of goods.

In the "big" cities, in the presence of the Internet and postal delivery, the active part of the population has access to all the same things as the inhabitants of “ the largest” cities.

Theaters, cinemas, museums, exhibition centers.

It should be understood that the level of entertainment in “the largest” city is much higher. People occasionally travel to “the largest” city in order to go to the opera; watch a movie in IMAX format, etc.

From the evaluation it is clear that the presence of elite art institutions in the near located city Perm is quite sufficient to the residents of Berezniki to visit them. In order to meet the population demand for mass art there is need to create a large entertainment center with 6 large cinema halls, it would level up the specific quantity of cinemas in Yekaterinburg and Berezniki per capita.

According to Internet media during the last period of time there is a temporary decline in attendance of cultural, educational and leisure public institutions due to the uncertainty of the economic situation in the country.

Facilities for leisure activities for children and teenagers (sports clubs and leisure clubs).

In Berezniki according to the website of the Committee for physical culture and sport" there

are about 60 sections of sports orientation. Organizations of additional education is not sporting focus, according to website youth, the city has about 10, with a large number of sections.

Obtaining a higher education.

Higher education is a necessity. Not all cities have Universities, or the number of occupations is limited. In this regard, high school graduates need to go to the "largest" city for education. Thus, the need for tertiary education leads to an outflow from the city of promising young people. The largest city is in the latter case, a kind of "funnel" that sucks personnel potential of "small" and "large" cities, resulting in a problem of shortage of qualified personnel. The conclusion is that the higher professional education is an important factor influencing the decline of socially active population of "small" and "large" cities.

For this reason Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation should review the policy of closing the branches of universities in monotowns and other cities. Even branches of the largest universities such as UrFU, USUE-SINE are being closed. Currently the branch of higher education institute USUE-SINE is being closed in Berezniki [2]. Students are invited to continue training in the headquarters university. It is unknown how many students who left for education will come back to the city for professional activity, and the most importantly, in the future, young people who want to learn a profession taught at this branch will be forced to leave the native city.

Closure of universities branches in monotowns because of their inefficiency creates the problem of skilled specialists’ shortage in these cities.

Salary.

For young people that begin the world, the starting salary is highly important. At the same time in Ekaterinburg graduate of construction faculty of university can get a job of engineer of the third category (the initial stage of career) with a salary amount of 25,000 rubles.

Accommodation.

This issue can be seen in different points of view.

Affordability. In "the largest" city earnings are higher, but the price for one square meter is also more expensive. An average apartment in Ekaterinburg is 3-4 times more expensive than that in Berezniki [4]. In the latter case, accommodation is more available, but, as it was mentioned above, the average income in Berezniki is lower. In this regard, the opportunity of purchasing housing is approximately the same for “the big" and "the largest" cities residents.

Housing availability. Upgrading of the housing stock is very important. Construction of housing is associated with development and progress.

Conclusion: the slow pace of updating the housing stock, create a feeling from the lack of development of the city. Hence, people have the desire of resettlement in the city, where the infrastructure development and the emergence of new residential areas. People go to the "the largest" city, because it has development (i.e. housing construction), but it continues to expand construction rates, as there is inflow of people who need to be provided with accommodation.

Conclusion

Considering the causes of migration to "the largest" cities, yet necessary investments in the development of "small" and "large" cities to reduce this outflow are to be estimated. Undoubtedly the mere fact of people leaving the sphere of business activity of "the small" and "the big" cities causes economic and demographic damage which is much greater than the volume of state funds invested for their development.

It is important to understand that in case of the complete territory degradation its redevelopment will cost colossal investments for the regional authorities and for the Government of the Russian Federation.

At the federal government level this problem is known for a long time. The ways to solve it are being searched. In 1996, an alliance of small towns of Russia was founded, as well as a resolution No. 762 "On approval of the complex Federal program for development of small and mediumsized cities of the Russian Federation in terms of economic reforms" was adopted.

Currently the concept of federal special-purpose program "Social and Economic Development of Small Towns of the Russian Federation for period 2015-2020" is approved by the Russian Federation Government. The program provides complex development of small towns at the city level.

In the authors' opinion, in order to prevent the population outflow from "the small" and "the big" cities it is necessary to create favorable conditions for life and development. Execution of this task requires programs for strategic development not for a single city, but programs for strategic development of the region as a whole.

References

Development towns of Russia: monograph / call. authors under the editorship of I. N. Ilina. Tartu: University, 2013. 168 p.

Minus one University // New city. [Electronic resource]. - Mode of access PA: www.gorodberez.ru/gazeta/minus-odin-vuz/

Housing conditions of the population / Territorial body of Federal state statistics service of the Sverdlovsk

region. [Electronic re-SORS].

- Access mode:

sverdl.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_ts/sverdl/ru/statistics/housing/

In the Perm region starts a program of resettlement of people from the danger zone // Ministry of construction. [Electronic resource]. - Access mode: www.minstroyrf.ru/press/v-permskom-krae- startuet-programma-pereseleniya-lyudey-iz-opasnoy-zony/?sphrase_id=48008]

Garner, J. S. The model company town. Massachusetts: The University of Massa-chusetts Press, 1982.








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