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From Municipal Solid Waste to Electric Energy, Biogas and Fertilizer

Electricity is one of the great inventions in the history of human being. What would be if electricity would not be invented? Perhaps human being could have not come far away from cave life. So any prosperity of a nation can’t be imaginable without meeting the demand of energy.

Shortage of energy supply and huge quantity of waste has been cause of severe problems of economic growth and environment damage in Bangladesh. Both of the problems have been digging the grave of standard social life. In these circumstances, “Waste to Energy project” in Dhaka and other big cities would be a significant step to overhaul the economy of Bangladesh and lessen the unemployment problem and the environment contamination.

This project has twin development objectives of generating electricity from a renewable source, namely municipal solid waste (MSW) and reduction of GHG. And it is expected that the project would contribute to improve of the living standard of the people of Bangladesh through provision of a vital energy source at affordable prices.

Electric energy and common scenario in Bangladesh

At the time of obtaining independence in 1971, Bangladesh had only

power stations with 11 units (Kaptai 2, Shahjibazar 1, Shiddhirganj 2, Khulna 1, Thakurgaon 2, Rajshahi 1, and Gogra 2). At present, BPDB operates 22 power stations with a total installed capacity of 3,720 MW. And private sector installed capacity of 1446 MW (2009/10). Present demand is 4200-5500 MW (2010). Present available generation is 3800-4200(july24, 2010) due to lack of adequate maintenance and rehabilitation program. Maximum load shedding in FY 2010 is 1270. Per capita consumption of electricity is only 129 kWh per annum which is one of the lowest in the world. Only about 30% of our citizens have access to electricity now. The vast majority of the rural population is deprived of electricity. And the demand of electricity is increasing 6% year on year.

Sources of electric energy in Bangladesh

Bangladesh’s electric energy resources consist primarily of natural gas (87%). But it is reported that by 2020 gas reserves would no more in the country if no new gas field is discovered or no necessary steps put into consideration to diversifying the industry. Domestic oil supply is considered negligible. Several small deposits of peat exist in the southwestern region of the country. However, Bangladesh substantial bituminous coal deposits in the northwestern region, but mining of all of them is quite expensive because of their depth. So the shortage of electricity has a devastative impact.It is the cause of uncomfortable social life and millions of dollars worth of GDP losses through production disruption. But the situation would be meliorated by solving another social problem - the waste.

Waste as social problems

Large volume of MSW and improper management of it has been cause of severe environment damage for Dhaka city and the surrounding. Few studies are available dealing on quantity and quality of municipal solid wastes of Dhaka City. In 1998, the World Bank and Power Cell of the Power Division in the Ministry of Power, Energy and Mineral Resources (MPEMR) sponsored two studies regarding the quality and quantity of the municipal solid waste in Dhaka. In 2010 the generation of MSW was 8280 tons/day or 3.02 million tons/annum that were around 1.o6 million tons higher than a decade earlier in 1998. And it’s reported that by 2021, the daily and annual generation will amount to 15,110 tons and 5.52 million tons respectively. (Report WB & MPEMR-2010)

Among the volume Dhaka City Corporation collects almost less than half of it. The rest remains on roadsides or open areas that are cause severe environment damage. (WHO report 2010)

Consequence: Gigantic size and improper management of MSW has been cause of acquit pollution for Dhaka city and the surrounding. Every year remarkable number of population are being victims of water and air born disease such as cholera, typhoid and many more whose epidemics snatch a big number of lives each year.

Waste to energy policies

Energy is generated through MSW in many countries like Latvia, South Africa and Brazil. The following technologies are adopted: Landfill Gas to Power Generation, mass Burn Incinerator, the Fluidized Bed Incinerator, gasification technology & Plasma Waste Converter (PWC). But such technologies is not very effective in Bangladesh because high energy content of waste is required to persuade the technology. But Energy content of the waste of Dhaka is quite low (1386 - 2600Btu/lb or 770 -1444kcal/kg on as- received basis). The majority of the waste is water (50% -70%) due to the fact that the main part of the waste consists of vegetable and fruit residues. (WB & MPEMR-2010)

My project of technology

At first Biogas (CH4) will be produced by the MSW. Collecting wastes from several dumping areas it will be cut into small pieces. Urea would be used to make it rot rapidly. The paste of waste would be used to produce gas on plants. Certain amount of gas would be used to generate electricity and remaining would used for house hold uses. The wastes of the plant would be used as fertilizer which is eco-friendly.

Government policy to Renewable Sources of Energies

In 1996, Government of Bangladesh adopted the Private Sector Power Generation Policy (PSPGP) to promote private sector’s participation in the generation of electricity with a view to promote economic growth.

PSPGP 4(a) Private Investors can establish and operate Commercial Power Plants subject to provisions under Section 10(a) and 10(b) of these Guidelines.

PSPGP 4(b) Commercial Power Plants shall comply with applicable technical standards of grid connectivity and operation.

PSPGP 4(c) such investors shall find their own buyer(s) to sell the electricity generated. They will be free to negotiate the applicable tariff wit

Consequences of the project:

Diversification of the source of electricity generation and contribute to energy security and sustainable energy supply.

Diversification of Rural agriculture based economy to small and medium size business.

Sustainable growth of GDP through sustainable growth productivity thanks to thanks to uninterrupted supply of electricity/

Reduction of unemployment problem

Reduction of environment damage and peaceful social life

Md Nazmul Hossain (Бангладеш), Т. Б. Иванова Российский университет дружбы народов (Москва, Россия)

Управление интеллектуальным капиталом. Материалы Международной научно-практической конференции (Екатеринбург, 27 апреля 2012 г.) Екатеринбург: Издательство Уральского государственного экономического университета, 2012.


Количество Статей в теме 'Коммерческий торговый представитель': 66