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Foundations of modern banking in Europe

At the present time to build a successful banking sector that could compete on the international market in the first place you should pay attention to their priorities, and several other not unimportant circumstances (laws that liberalize banking activities).

A number of states (European Union) are restructuring the banking structure, it becomes more innovative, technological and globalized. The main role in the strategy of banks in a given period of time is - diversification. European banks are universal, and in turn enjoy great success.

A huge role for the state banks

UK: created a number of projects on which the banks will work so well in the post (a program designed specifically for non-city residents).

Germany: credit unions and cooperative banks to work with the rural population.

However, the state-owned banks has very little effect the economic cycle and therefore do not make them privileges. As can happen fast nationalization and subsequent sale to foreign owners. In general, state-owned banks have, and probably will continue to be an integral part of the banking systems of most countries. The main thing is to control and state agencies did not do for them is no exception and did not provide any benefits.

In some countries there is a reduction of banking institutions, which is compensated by the increasing number of subdivisions of foreign banks. Thus, over the last ten years the number of foreign banks that operate in Germany, has doubled. For the banking systems of many countries, foreign banks that operate in their territory, pose a significant threat.This applies, for example, not only in Eastern Europe (in general assets of local banks in the Eastern European region at the beginning of 2000 amounted to 1 509 billion euros and foreign - 1 037 billion euros, which is only 31% less), but also developed countries.On the one hand, foreign banks are covered with the disadvantage of the domestic banking capital, which is lacking for the development of national industry, and on the other - they are trying to win the country's banking market, which take, and to press the national banks.

So, for example, as the Irish fund managers after entering the country in the eurozone cut investment in Irish banks and companies and provide the advantage of investment abroad, the Irish stock market increases over the securities. This trend has allowed foreign banks is quite easy to control the Irish financial institutions. There are two ways to confront the process of absorption of foreign banks, national, first, is to create a strong national banking group through the merger of large banks in the country, and secondly, is the search for national banks, foreign business partners from financial institutions, which have a sufficiently strong position in their domestic financial services markets.

An important process that is happening today in the banking sector of the global financial system - it merged banks.

In 2006 the total volume of mergers and acquisitions in Europe, has reached 1.479 billion euros, or 42.3% of the world total. The reasons for takeovers and mergers of banks can be different: the financial crisis of the bank, the deterioration of its financial condition, the replacement of the strategic plans of the bank's management, as well as others, including family (eg, when the heirs of Swiss private banks are unwilling to continue the work of bankers and their parents).

The merge process takes different forms and directions. In particular, the merger is proposed as an alternative to this model, when the two are cofounders of the bank's total investment bank. This approach has no use, but BNP Paribas is in talks with large financial institutions of the European Union on the conclusion of this. For this purpose, BNP Paribas plans to convert its investment into a separate sub-business unit, which will have its own listing on the Stock Exchange.

Combining banking and insurance activities now commonplace. First, banks and insurance companies have been partners who worked in nearby fields, but have not seen one in a competitor. Now insurance companies are interfering in banking activities in the sphere of inserting or long-term capital loans. Banks on the other hand tend to sell insurance products, primarily life insurance policies, 50% of which, for example, in Italy and in France, providing the banks. This is due to several reasons. For example, in Germany, as in other Western European countries, there are some doubts about the prospects for the state pension - the percentage of pensioners in the population over the next ten years, foreign economists projected to increase significantly.

Therefore, a contract of life insurance is a component of a comprehensive solution to the question of security in old age. In addition, capitalized life insurance policies are extremely attracted to the tax point of view as a form of insertion of the capital. Thus, multinational banks in the insurance market reacted to the slogan “if you can not beat them, join them”. Some banks have decided to create a cooperative model where the co-operative bank and insurance company mutually assist each other in operations.

One of the great banks in the world - the German “Deutsche Bank”, on the contrary, he decided to work independently and in the insurance market to offer their own products.Therefore, first established his own company with life insurance, then acquired a controlling stake in a large insurance company, which had a good reputation in the market, and then combined with her daughter banking business.

In recent years, the global private banking business, which caters to wealthy individuals, there are important changes due to increased customer requirements. Leadership in this market remain Swiss banks, which control more than a third of its volume. Competitors are trying to create a group of American banks, “Citigroup” and other European banks such as HSBC. In 2000, HSBC has created a joint venture of Merril Lynch, which aims to track the requirements of 50 million potential wealthy clients, who can be expected before the end of this decade will need to be consulted on investment over the Internet.

By the main result of the reform of the banking systems of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe are those of the restructuring, the liberalization of interest rates and banking operations, a partial reduction of banking legislation and supervisory framework in line with international standards and EU standards.

И. А Агеев, И. Б Дроздова Уральский государственный экономический университет (Екатеринбург)

Конкурентоспособность территорий. Материалы XV Всероссийского форума молодых ученых с международным участием в рамках III Евразийского экономического форума молодежи «Диалог цивилизаций «ПУТЬ НАВСТРЕЧУ» Часть 5. Направления: 7. Совершенствование учета, анализа и статистики современной экономики, 9. Банки, фондовый рынок и коллективные инвестиции, Екатеринбург Издательство Уральского государственного экономического университета 2012


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